The thermoelectric cooling system is based on a scientifically proven phenomenon known as the Peltier Effect. This dictates that a temperature gradient is created when an electric current passes through the junctions between two conductors. The heat generated is deposited in one junction while cooling takes place at the other junction.
Thermoelectric systems typically apply to cooling devices although they are applied in some heating devices as well. Thermoelectric modules are often used to provide solutions where in most cases, it is the only answer.
With the thriving of modern technology in the design of many electronics and appliances, traditional cooling methods are gradually being abandoned as people switch to more modern cooling techniques. Thermoelectric coolers, along with the similarly functioned vortex electronic coolers, are known to offer substantial benefits over alternative technologies.
Below are some of the major advantages of thermoelectric cooling systems.
1. No moving parts
Thermoelectric cooling systems work in the absence of any moving parts and refrigerants. For this reason, such systems are highly reliable and require low maintenance as compared to other cooling systems. Moving parts are the cause of noise in most systems and the absence of such parts contributes to the low noise performance in all systems that utilize them. This makes them ideal for use in laboratories, medical offices, and any other setting that requires noise reduction.
2. High reliability
The solid-state construction concept used to make thermoelectric cooling systems makes them highly reliable. Under ideal operational conditions, a typical thermoelectric cooling system can work for up to 200,000 hours before experiencing any issues if they are to even occur. Therefore, it is easy to rely on them to cool for a long period of time without having to worry about maintenance.
It is also possible to set a specific temperature that suits your environment by the use of a closed loop circuit with an accuracy degree that is very high. This can allow a slight change in temperature up to +/- 0.1 degrees Celsius and can be controlled through an automatic system based on the temperature of the enclosure.
3. Small in size & light in weight
Generally, a thermoelectric cooling system is much smaller and lighter in weight than an equivalent system. Several standard sizes, weights, and configurations are available to cater for specific application requirements, allowing someone to get the exact system they need without sacrificing space or having to make alterations.
These thermoelectric modules eliminate any possible risks of refrigerant leaks and several components can be designed to operate in unison to allow for optimal results in a regulated temperature within a little space.
Historically, cooling systems were designed to operate with the energy from chlorofluorocarbons which pose a great threat to the natural environment. Thermoelectric systems, however, do not emit these gases making them harmless to the environment. Also, the fact that they emit minimal noise while operating means that they are not a cause of noise pollution.
These systems harness renewable energy resources in homes and workplaces and do not use coolants, making them a greener, more environmentally friendly option.
5. Able to cool below ambient
Thermoelectric cooling systems are attached to a heat sink that is able to reduce the temperature of the whole system below the ambient value. This is opposite to conventional designs of heat sinks as temperatures in these systems have to be above the ambient temperature for effective operation.
These coolers are known as Peltier coolers and consist of the Peltier element and a powerful heat sink. They resemble heat pumps and transfer heat from one side of the system to the other depending on the direction of the electric current, allowing for the electrical components to be effectively cooled as required.